Molecular formula: NH3
Characteristics: The gas is colourless and very pungent.
Occurrence: Arises when organic substances decompose, mainly during cattle farming. In farming it occurs in nitrogen fertilizers and hence easily penetrates the soil. Ammonia is often used as a bleach or a detergent in industry and households.
Impact: Ammonia causes coughing and irritation of the upper respiratory tract, eyes, nose, and throat at low exposure concentrations. Inflammation of the skin, eyes, throat, and lungs occurs at higher exposure concentrations. This active ingredient also exhibits a danger of chronic problems with airways, the cornea, and glaucoma through prolonged exposure.
Limit: Neither the EU nor the WHO places any limit. There is zero tolerance in the Czech Republic.